The Back Bay was used for little more than milling operations until the mid-19th century, when the bay’s tidal flats were filled in a process that lasted until the late 1880s and resulted in the creation of more than 450 acres of usable land.
The Back Bay was planned as a fashionable residential district, and was laid out as such by the architect Arthur Gilman in 1856. Having travelled to Paris, Gilman was familiar with Baron Haussmann’s plan for the new layout of that city and this inspiration reflected a growing American interest in French architecture and city planning.
As the tidal flats were slowly filled in, beginning at edge of the Public Garden and extending westward, residential construction followed. Because the land filling efforts proceeded slowly, construction advanced concurrently on filled-in lots as they became available. As a result, most blocks in the Back Bay date from approximately the same era and, when viewed in sequence, illustrate the changing tastes in and stylistic evolution of American architecture over the course of the mid- to late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Commercial buildings were erected alongside these residential structures, primarily on Newbury and Boylston Streets. Commercial development began on Boylston Street around 1880 and on Newbury Street in the early 20th century. While new structures were built for some of these commercial ventures, others adapted existing row houses for their purposes. This early example of adaptive reuse helped to maintain the Back Bay’s uniform appearance.
The Back Bay has been home to a number of important artists, writers, and philosophers. Oliver Wendell Holmes, George Santayana, John Singer Sargent, and William Morris Hunt are among the many notable figures that lived in the Back Bay. As the site of the original Museum of Fine Arts, the Boston Public Library, the Museum of Natural History, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the Back Bay has been an important center for American culture.
Noted architects whose work is represented in the Back Bay include H.H. Richardson, McKim, Mead, and White, Peabody and Stearns, and Richard Morris Hunt, among others. A number of architectural styles are represented in the Back Bay, including Italianate, Gothic, Ruskinian Gothic (also known as High Victorian Gothic), French Academic, Queen Anne, and Panel Brick, along with many of the revival styles, including Italian Renaissance, German Renaissance, Beaux Arts, Chateauesque, Georgian, Federal, and Adamesque.
The Back Bay Architectural District was designated in 1966 by Act of the Massachusetts State Legislature (Chapter 625 of the Acts of 1966, as amended).
All exterior work (whether or not it is visible from a public way) requires the review of the Back Bay Architectural Commission. A Certificate of Appropriateness, Design Approval, or Exemption Application must be submitted to and approved by the Commission prior to beginning any exterior work.
See the Back Bay Guidelines for additional information.
Applications, application instructions, and a schedule of filing deadlines and hearing dates are available below. To save time and costs, property owners and developers are encouraged to contact staff early on in the project planning process, in order to obtain information on compliance with guidelines.
A preservation planner for the Back Bay Architectural District may be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org or at 617-635-3850.
Please note that Commission staff is not available to review applications for completeness immediately upon submittal.
Please review all instructions and documentation requirements carefully before submitting your application.
It is your responsibility to ensure the application is complete before submittal. Incomplete applications will not be accepted.
Back Bay Architectural Commission Agenda April 2016
The Back Bay Architectural Commission will hold a public hearing on Wednesday, April 13, 2016 at 5:00 PM in Room 900 of Boston City Hall (BRA Board Room). The agenda is available below.